- Research Question and Hypothesis Generation
- Incorporating Multimedia into Didactics and Presentations
- Designing Research Studies
- Conceptual Frameworks
- Quantitative Data Analysis & Biostats
- Qualitative Research Methods
- Mixed Methods
- Writing for Publication
- Grant Funding
Research Question and Hypothesis Generation
- Farrugia P, Petrisor BA, Farrokhyar F, Bhandari M. Practical tips for surgical research: Research questions, hypotheses and objectives. Can J Surg. 2010 Available online here.
- Blair PS and Barton A. Chapter 1: Asking the Right Questions. In Walker. 2014. An Introduction to Health Services Research. SAGE Publications.
ISBN-13: 978-1446247396 ISBN-10: 1446247392
- Haynes RB. Forming research questions. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006 Sep;59(9):881-6. Available online here.
- Bragge P. Asking good clinical research questions and choosing the right study design. Injury. 2010 Jul;41 Suppl 1:S3-6. doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2010.04.016. Epub 2010 May 13. Available online here.
- Campbell JD. Formulating the Right Research Question. AT Still University. Available online here.
Compiled by: Marie Hunsinger RN, Tania Arora, MD
Incorporating Multimedia into Didactics and Presentations
- Making Better PowerPoint Presentations. Vanderbilt University. Available online here.
- Effective Use of Visuals in Presentations. Buller D. Wilson Centre at the University of Toronto. Available online here.
- Willis R. Empirically-Derived Guidelines for Presentation Design. UT Health Science Center in San Antonio. Available online here.
Compiled by: Tania Arora, MD
Designing Research Studies
- General Overview:
Web Center for Social Research Methods Resource for Study Design
Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching Quantitative Study Approaches
- Delphi Technique: Hsu C and Sandford \erA. The Delphi Technique: Making Sense Of Consensus. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation. 2007; 12(10). ISSN 1531-7714. Available online here.
- Relationship Research Design: Privitera GJ. Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences, 3rd Ed. Chapter 8: Survey and Correlational Research Designs. ISBN-13: 978-1544309811 ISBN-10: 154430981
- Experimental & Quasi-Experimental Research Design: Gribbons B, Herman J. True and Quasi-Experimental Designs. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation. 1997;5(14). ISSN 1531-7714. Available online here.
- Examples of Well-Designed Surgical Education Studies: Krautter M, Weyrich P, Schultz JH, Buss SJ, Maatouk I, Jünger J, Nikendei C. Effects of Peyton’s four-step approach on objective performance measures in technical skills training: a controlled trial. Teach Learn Med. 2011 Jul-Sep;23(3):244-50. doi: 10.1080/10401334.2011.586917. Available online here.
Nicksa GA, Anderson C, Fidler R, Stewart L. Innovative approach using interprofessional simulation to educate surgical residents in technical and nontechnical skills in high-risk clinical scenarios. JAMA Surg. 2015 Mar 1;150(3):201-7. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2014.2235. Available online here.
Compiled by: Rondi Gelbard, MD
- Uijtdehaage S, Kalishman S, O’Sullivan P, Robins L. How to Succeed as a Medical Education Scholar: Identifying Your Individual Strategy and Creating a Roadmap for Scholarship. MedEdPORTAL. 2013;9:9472. https://doi.org/10.15766/mep_2374-8265.9472.
Compiled by: Pat O’Sullivan, MD
Quantitative Data Analysis & Biostats
- Qualtrics. Popular Statistical Analysis for Market Research Surveys.
- Descriptive Statistics. Web Center for Social Research Methods.
- Medpage Today. Guide to Biostatistics.
Compiled by: Arghavan Salles, MD, PhD
Qualitative Research Methods
These are papers/guidelines of interest with regard to qualitative research methods in medical/surgical education research.
- Hanson JL, Balmer DF, Giardino AP. Qualitative research methods for medical educators. Acad Pediatr. 2011 Sep-Oct;11(5):375-86. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2011.05.001. Epub 2011 Jul 23. Available online here.
- Tavakol M, Sandars J. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part I. Med Teach. 2014 Sep;36(9):746-56.
doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.915298. Epub 2014 May 20. Available online here.
- Tavakol M, Sandars J. Quantitative and qualitative methods in medical education research: AMEE Guide No 90: Part II. Med Teach. 2014 Oct;36(10):838-48.
doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.915297. Epub 2014 May 20. Available online here.
- Turner TL, Balmer DF, Coverdale JH. Methodologies and study designs relevant to medical education research. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2013 Jun;25(3):301-10.
doi: 10.3109/09540261.2013.790310. Available online here.
Compiled by: David Rogers, MD
- Creswell JW, Klassen AC, Plano Clark VL, Smith KC for the Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. Best practices for mixed methods research in the health sciences. August 2011. National Institutes of Health.
Defines mixed-methods research in the health sciences, and discusses the need for mixed-methods. Describes best practices and approaches to mixed-methods research, and provides many key references and resources related to different aspects of mixed-methods research. Available online here.
- Lavelle E, Vuk J, Barber C. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research. Med Teach. 2013 Apr;35(4):272-6. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2013.759645. Epub 2013 Feb 6.
Talks about using mixed-methods research for developing theory and improving practice in medical education. Provides specific, practical tips for implementing mixed-methods in medical education research. Available online here.
- Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2007:1(1), 77-100. DOI 10.1177/1558689806292430. Defines different research participant sampling techniques and when/how to employ these techniques to answer research questions using a mixed-methods design. Provides some general guidelines for mixed-methods sampling. Available online here.
- Schifferdecker KE, Reed VA. Using mixed methods research in medical education: basic guidelines for researchers. Med Educ. 2009 Jul;43(7):637-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2009.03386.x. Provides basic guidelines for when to use mixed-methods research in medical education. Discusses examples of mixed-methods research design models applicable to medical education and provides basic guidelines for implementation. Available online here.
- Pemberton J, Rambaran M, Cameron BH. Evaluating the long-term impact of the Trauma Team Training course in Guyana: an explanatory mixed-methods approach. Am J Surg. 2013 Feb;205(2):119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.08.004. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
Provides an example of how a mixed-methods approach was used to evaluate an educational intervention in a surgical domain. Is explicit about how the authors used mixed-methods to develop and inform their research design. Available online here.
Compiled by: Pat O’Sullivan, MD, Sarah Jung, PhD
Writing for Publication
- Mimi Zeiger. 2000. Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers, 2nd Ed. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. [ISBN-13: 978-0071345446] [ISBN-10: 0071345442] Masters-level book for a Masters of Medical Education degree that contains examples and critiques.
- Preparing for Submission. Thorough review from the International Committee on Medical Journal Editors
- Tips for Thesis Writing and Preparing Research Papers
- How to Write a Paper in Scientific Journal Style and Format
Compiled by: John Falcone, MD, Sue Steinemann, MD
- Stefanidis D. Funding Sources for Education Research. Available online here.
- ASE/PSF Combined Research Grant
- Association for Surgical Education CESERT Grants
- Pugh CM and Stefanidis D. Grant Funding. ACS Principles and Practice for Simulation & Surgical Education Research. American College of Surgeons-Accredited Education Institutes (ACS-AEI) Research and Development Committee’s research manual. Available online here.
- Stefanidis D. Chapter 14: Grant Writing. In Renton DB, Gee DW. 2017. The SAGES Manual Transitioning to Practice. Springer.
ISBN-13: 978-3319513966 ISBN-10: 9783319513966
Other Useful Websites for Grant Funding Sources:
- Grant Funding Resources for Educational Initiatives. Center for Teaching. Vanderbilt University. Available online here.
- Funding Sources for Medical Education Research. Academy of Medical Educators. KU Medical Center. Available online here.
- Medical Education Scholarship and Research. Medical Education. Faculty Resources. Weill Cornell Medicine. Available online here.
Compiled by: Dimitrios Stefanidis, MD, PhD